S5 Table General characteristics of included literature. Most recent studies have shown adverse effects in animals fed diets high in simple sugar 27, Keogh J. Ketogenic Diet. This meta-analysis confirms that low-carbohydrate diets have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors but that the long-term effects on cardiovascular risk factors require further research. Macronutrient composition of the diets. An online intervention comparing a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and lifestyle recommendations versus a plate method diet in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Pepe S. Finally, insulin resistance was also attributed to a decreased insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal, which was notably due to decreased glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue and the heart [ 24 ]. Inflammation, as assessed by elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein hsCRP or white blood cell count WBC [ 29 — 32 ], is an independent CVD risk factor and is involved in all stages of atherogenesis [ 33 ].
Carotenoids are lipophylic antioxidants that are found in plants and some photosynthetic bacteria and fungi. Vitamins C mainly found in citrus fruits and E mainly found in seeds and vegetable oil are associated with a reduction in coronary artery disease Law et al. McNulty H.
Contrary to obesity, insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with a one-unit increase in the Homeostasis Model Assessment HOMA-IR, which quantifies insulin resistance being associated with a 5. Indo Am J Pharm Res. Milk fat biomarkers and cardiometabolic disease. Park J. Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer period of time did not produce any significant side effects in the patients. Diastolic blood pressure Compared with that of the control group, the diastolic blood pressure of the observation groups decreased by 1. Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes.
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described. Unfortunately, these effects seem to be limited in time. Moreover, these diets are not totally safe and can be associated with some adverse events. Notably, in rodents, development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD and insulin resistance have been described. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of ketogenic diets on different cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans based on available evidence. As a consequence of the rising obesity prevalence in industrialized countries, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases also increases [ 1 ]. Obesity is also a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes [ 2 ].