Review Free to read. Molecular clocks are present in almost every cell to anticipate daily recurring and predictable changes, such as rhythmic nutrient availability, and to adapt cellular functions accordingly. At the same time, nutrient-sensing pathways can respond to acute nutrient imbalance and modulate and orient metabolism so cells can adapt optimally to a declining or increasing availability of nutrients. Organismal circadian rhythms are coordinated by behavioral rhythms such as activity—rest and feeding—fasting cycles to temporally orchestrate a sequence of physiological processes to optimize metabolism. Basic research in circadian rhythms has largely focused on the functioning of the self-sustaining molecular circadian oscillator, while research in nutrition science has yielded insights into physiological responses to caloric deprivation or to specific macronutrients. Integration of these two fields into actionable new concepts in the timing of food intake has led to the emerging practice of time-restricted eating. In this paradigm, daily caloric intake is restricted to a consistent window of 8—12 h. This paradigm has pervasive benefits on multiple organ systems. The quality and quantity of nutrition are well-accepted determinants of health. However, recent progress in the field of circadian rhythms has led to the idea that the time of day when food is ingested affects body weight, body composition, glucose regulation, lipid homeostasis, the gut microbiome, cardiac function, inflammation, sleep, and overall health Daily fluctuation in nutrient absorption, assimilation, substrate interconversion, and utilization are lending increasing support to this concept Figure 1.
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The impact of temporal feeding patterns remains a major unanswered question in nutritional science. Progress has been hampered by the absence of a reliable method to impose temporal feeding in laboratory rodents, without the confounding influence of food-hoarding behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a reliable method for supplying crushed diets to laboratory rodents in consistent, relevant feeding patterns for prolonged periods. Importantly, cumulative food intake in grazing and meal-fed rats was identical. Neither pattern elevated corticosterone secretion in rats, but meal-feeding aligned ultradian pulses. We have established a consistent, measurable, researcher-defined, stress-free method for imposing temporal feeding patterns in rats and mice.